Page 13 - Respond 2019 Magazine
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          Figure 1. Global EV Electricity Demand: Base Case vs. Aggressive Case
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          well as more comfortable driving). Because   Figure 1 shows that ambitious deployment   manufacturing and implementation) and
          the vast majority of EVs are charged at   of Electric Vehicles (EVs) with 90% of   indirectly (e.g., by freeing up disposable
          home or at the workplace, this growth   car sales being electric by 2040 requires   income). Investments in local construction
          in EV adoption represents incremental   an additional 3000 TWh of electricity,   enable direct capture of energy cost
          growth in building electricity use. The   which is more than the whole of Europe   savings and returns on retrofit investments
          accelerated deployment of energy efficient   consumes per year today. Increasing   by local residents and businesses, whereas
          technologies in buildings (where most of   building renovation rates from the current   investments in electricity generation
          our electricity is consumed) is by far the   1% to between 3 and 5% per year (with the   facilities will divert returns elsewhere, with
          most cost-effective way to accomplish this.   5% rate estimated at current practice of   less immediate benefit to the community.
                                             30% efficiency improvement, and the 3%
          The base case scenario predicts that EVs   renovation rate requiring approximately a   A third linkage between buildings and EVs
          will comprise 55% of annual vehicle sales   50% efficiency improvement) will prevent   (see Figure 2) is that most if not all new
          by 2040 (with 50 million EVs sold in the   the need to build and invest in new   efficient technologies – like LED lighting
          year 2040) and 33% of total cars on the   power generation. Furthermore, another   – are digital, and thus our buildings can
          road worldwide (reaching 550 million total   important practical relationship between   become smart buildings connected to
          EVs). This case represents Bloomberg New   buildings and EVs is that the EV charging   the Internet of Things following these
          Energy Finance’s (BNEF’s) 2018 EV outlook,   points can be included in the building   renovations. This will enable smart
          which is based on current projections of   (residential, commercial or public sector   charging and load management that can
          EV adoption from public goals, targets and   building) as part of the renovation. After   further reduce power demand on the grid!
          sales trends. We view BNEF’s prediction as   all we will charge our cars while we are at   In the case of grid-interactive efficiency
          a realistic representation of EV adoption   work or at home. The economic argument   investments in building controls, smart
          based on current trends. To determine   for increasing building energy efficiency   LEDs, and smart appliances (among
          the upper limits of EV adoption, Rocky   retrofits rests on the fact that there are   others) make demand flexible, thereby
          Mountain Institute designed an aggressive   numerous market-ready technologies   promoting grid stability. When paired
          scenario to represent what effect rapid   that can be deployed with short payback   with the deployment of smart EV charging
          adoption of EVs would have on electricity   periods, and that building retrofits create   infrastructure to enable EVs as distributed
          demand. EV adoption rates are much   more local economwic development than   energy resources, this can help to balance
          higher in this scenario and reach 90%   the construction of additional power   loads and better harness renewable
          of annual vehicle sales by 2040 (with 63   generation. For reference, according to   energy generation. As an example, Figure
          million EVs sold in the year 2040) and   a 2013 Ecofys report investing in energy   3 illustrates the impact of widespread
          43% of total cars on the road worldwide   efficiency measures could create 380 jobs   deployment of fast payback measures,
          (reaching 830 million total EVs). This   per TWh of electricity saved, whereas   including LED retrofits, appliance
          scenario represents RMI’s most aggressive   investing in coal-fired power plants   replacements, and retro-commissioning
          outlook based on internal research looking   creates 110 jobs per TWh of electricity   across the state of California. These
          at continued commitments, cost declines   generated. Job creation from energy   measures have a payback of less than four
          and infrastructure rollout goals.                                      years and achieve about a 7% reduction
                                             efficiency can happen both directly (e.g., in
                                                                                 in statewide hourly electricity use. Paired

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